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Comparison of electricity production from different sources

nuclear
advantages disadvantages
  • does not pollute the environment due to the releases from fossil fuel combustion process
  • high efficiency of installed output utilization
  • low unit price of produced electricity in comparison with other sources
  • fuel price contributes by a low share on a price of produced electricity in comparison with other sources (stable price of electricity taking into account fuel price fluctuations)
  • there are reliable suppliers of the nuclear fuel in stable regions
  • fuel stock can be created for several years
  • relatively low amount of produced waste
  • sustainable scientific research in nuclear
  • low operating costs
  • long life time (tens of years)
  • a possibility of combined production of electricity and heat
  • high investment costs during construction
  • long term stored radioactive waste requires care
coal
advantages disadvantages
  • there are reliable suppliers of coal in stable regions
  • high efficiency of installed output utilization
  • investment costs during construction are lower than in nuclear
  • a possibility of combined production of electricity and heat
  • pollutes the environment by release of combustion products (consequences: acid rains, global warming)
  • the high costs of coal transportation
  • the sources are exhausted, new fields shall be looked for
  • expensive technologies for environment protection
gas, oils
advantages disadvantages
  • well built infrastructure for fuel supply
  • an ability to assure the quick changes of output upon grid requests
  • investment costs during construction are lower than in nuclear
  • a possibility of combined production of electricity and heat
  • pollutes the environment by the release of the combustion products (global warming)
  • the sources are exhausted, new fields shall be looked for (mainly in unstable regions)
  • produced electricity and heat depend highly on the fuel price
  • high prices of produced electricity and heat during recent period
water
advantages disadvantages
  • renewable source of energy, without combustion products
  • depending on the design, an ability to assure the quick changes of output upon grid requests
  • low operating costs
  • effective and reliable operation
  • dependence on climate conditions (rainfall capacity)
  • high investment costs during a construction
  • depending on the design, a possibility of negative impact to a landscape (flooding of the territories needed for water basins)
wind
advantages disadvantages
  • renewable source of energy, without combustion products
  • low operating costs 
  • dependence on climate conditions (wind strength)
  • high investment costs during construction
  • low efficiency of installed output utilization
  • low unit installed output, therefore a necessity to construct a lot of wind power plants to reach a required total installed output
  • negative impact to the landscape (appearance, scaring of animals, birds)
  • a necessity to build standby capacities due to non-reliability of the production resulting in a negative impact to the end price of the produced electricity 
bio fuels
advantages disadvantages
  • renewable source of energy
  • a possibility of combined production of electricity and heat
  • loads the environment by the release of the combustion products (global warming)
  • high investment costs during construction (higher than fossil fuel power plants, however, lower than wind, hydro and nuclear power plants)
  • high operating costs
  • ineffective in case of low unit outputs
  • expensive technologies for environment protection
solar
advantages disadvantages
  • renewable source of energy, without combustion products
  • low operating costs 
  • dependence on climate conditions (amount of sunshine days)
  • low efficiency of installed output utilization
  • low unit installed output, therefore a necessity to occupy a large area with solar panels to reach a required total installed output
  • a negative impact on food supply security of the country in case of installation on agricultural land
  • a necessity to build standby capacities due to non-reliability of the production resulting in a negative impact to the end price of the produced electricity